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It is half a century since silicone breast enlargement became availableһrcd it is still the most popular cosmetic-surgery' procedure' in the US and the UK What does this tell us about the society we live in?

 轺¡Ѿͣ ȻӢܻӭ.˵һ ?


 It was in 1962 that Timmie Jean Lindsey was offered a solution to a non-existent problem. A factory worker from Texas, she had married at 15, had six children, divorced in her mid-20s, and *taken up with a man who encouraged her to have a vine tattooed6 on her cleavage'. Roses tumbled across her breasts. When the relationship faltered, Lindsey decided she wanted the tattoos removed. "I was ashamed," she says, "and I needed them taken off" Her low-paid work made her eligible for treatment at a charity hospital, where she was told the tattoo could be removed through dermabrasion. And the doctors had another proposal. Had she ever thought about breast implants?

1962꣬һ··ṩһֽʱڵÿ˹һҹˡ飬6ӣʮ飬һ鹵ˡõ廨 ҡҷ˹ϵ ѺҪ ϴ“Ҹе߳ܣ”˵“ҪŪ”нˮܵͣ һҽԺơ ֪Ƥĥȥ ҽǻ һ顣ֲ¡?


Lindsey had not. She'd never felt self-conscious about her breastsһand even if she had, the options at that time were primitive and problematic, involving substances injected directly into women's chests, or implants made of sponge. "The only person I'd ever talked to about breast implants was my cousin," says Lindsey, "who had had some kind of surgery. She said: `Sometimes I wake up and my breast has moved to another part of my body,' and I thought: `My God. I never want that.' It wasn't long after she and I talked that I came into contact with these doctors."



ûδеڡ ڣʱѡҲֲڣҺܳ⣬ҪһЩֱעŮԵزֲƳ ļ塣“ֻһ̸¡ص¶”˵“ij˵:‘ʱ֣ҵ鷿 Ȼܵһطȥˡ’ҵʱ:‘찡ҿɲ’˵²ãҾͽ  Щ”


 The team was led by Dr Thomas Cronin, who had been developing the world's first silicone breast implants. Thomas Biggs, then 29, and a surgical resident" under Cronin, says the idea came about when one of his colleagues, Frank Gerow, went to the blood bank. "They'd stopped putting liquids in glass bottles, and begun putting them into plastic bags," says Biggs, "and he was walking in the hall with this bag of blood, and felt that it had the softness of a breast."Around the same time, Cronin travelled "to New Orleans to a *plastic surgery meeting and encountered a former resident of his. This fellow told him there was a company who had a new product which was interesting because it had very little body reaction, and could be made into a variety of thicknesses, a variety of viscosities, all the way from liquid to solid. If you can make a solid, you can make a bagһand if you can make a liquid, you can make something that goes in it."

 ҽ˹· ʿһֱϵһ¡õĹ轺ֲ塣ʱ29˹·ȸ˹ǿһסԺ ʵϰҽʦ˵뷨 ͬ¸· ȥѪվʱġȸ˹˵:“ѾٰҺ ڲƿʼʹ ϴʱ ôһѪڴ ߣ鷿һĴС” ͬһʱ䣬ǰ“ °¶μһ飬˹ȥһʵϰҽʦ˸ijҹ˾һ²Ʒ²Ʒ˹עΪ   ķӦСҿ Ƴɸ ȣճȣҺֱ 塣 壬Ϳ;Һ壬԰Ž”


 Cronin had the idea for a breast implant. A prototype was created, and implanted into a dog called Esmeralda. "That worked OK," says Biggs, "and so then they got to Timmie Lindsey." She's 80 today, still living in Texas, working night shifts in a care home, and those first, experimental globes remain in her chest.

뵽ֲʽ¡ءһԭֲͣһ ֻ˹÷ڡȸ˹˵:“Чȥҵ·”Ѿ80ˣȻסڵ˹һ  Ժֵҹࡣ Ե Ȼ


 The 50-year history of breast implants had begun, a history of controversy and success. What no one knew back then was just how phenomenally" popular breast augmentation's surgery would becomeһthe last available figures from the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery show it was the most popular form of cosmetic surgery in the US in 2010, with 318,123 augmentations performed. It is also the most popular cosmetic operation in the UK. While there are no overall figures for cosmetic surgery here, those collected by the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS), which represent around a third of the market, show 9,418 women had breast augmentation in 2010, a rise of more than 10% from the previous year.

ֲʽ¡ذ͵ʷӴ˿ʼ: һʷҲһɹʷʱû֪  ¡պöô ӭ ѧԲ ʾ2010꣬ ܻӭһʵʩ318123¡ҲӢ  ӭȻû ֣Ӣ ҽʦЭռ(ռгݶ1/3)ʾ20109418λŮ¡أǰһ10%ϡ


It's estimated between 5 and 10 million womem worldwide have had the surgery, many for cosmetic reasons, and a significant proportion for reconstruction following a mastectomy, or for transsexual people transitioning from male to female. But concern around them has never abated, with the most recent row being one of the most disturbing, and vexed. In 2010, after concerns about ruptures in implants made by French company Poly Implant Prosthesis(PIP), it emerged the company had been filling them not with the medical-grade silicone that had won them a CE mark, and the right to sell them in Europeһbut industrial-grade silicone, otherwise used to make mattresses. In December last year it was reported that the faulty implants had been tentatively linked to cancer in France. Eight women whose PIP implants had failed had had the disease, including one who suffered a rare form of lymphoma28 and died. Street protests began in France, the French state health service said it would pay to remove the implants, and similar calls began here.

ݹƣȫ5001000Ů ܶΪ ݣҲ ൱һгԺ˴ԱŮԡ ĵδľ˲ջ֮һ2010ֲ꣬޸幫˾(PIP) ļ ǺǷ֣ҹ˾ֲ˵IJʹCE֤( һְȫ֤־ Ϊ ŷгĻ —ע)Ȩŷ ۵ҽù轺ԭĹҵ轺ȥ12бƣڷ ļ  ֢ ء8PIPŮԻ ֢ һ˻Ϻ ܰͰ   ʼֽͷ飬  ˵֧ժ ķãӢҲƵĺ


Why do women risk it? Of all the areas of the body that could be modified, or augmented, why are the breasts the focus of such an enormous proportion of cosmetic surgeries? As the PIP story has unfolded, some have commented that they can understand why mastectomy patients might want the operation, but not women who have it solely for cosmetic reasons. This seems slightly disingenuous. Because if it is, of course, understandable that someone might want a breast that had been removed to be reconstructed, it's surely not such an enormous leap'0 to imagine why someone with very small breasts might want the operation too. Still, the numbers remain astonishing, a testament to discomfort and self-loathing", to a culture that has come to see bodiesһespecially women's bodiesһas endlessly open to modification. The fact that the rise of breast implant surgery has taken place *in tandem with the rise of second-wave feminism, only makes this more perplexing.*

ŮΪʲôҪðķ?Ͽ Ľв λУΪʲôô 鷿?PIP̬չЩ˵ǿΪʲô 鷿г ⲻЩΪݶŮԡƺе㲻 ϡΪ ij鷿гһȻ⣬ô鷿СȻô ⡣ˣȻ𾪡Щǿպ ɮ ʵ֤ݣһΪ塢Ů Խ޾Ļʵ֤ݡ¡Ů֣ͬ


 Many breast augmentation doctors are male, but it's too simple to suggest it's just an operation imposed on women by men. The writer Teresa Riordan, former patents columnist for the New York Times, and author of the book Inventing Beauty, analysed the beauty industry between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, "and it was just phenomenal the different contraptions women had used to augment their breasts. I was astounded, because I thought it would be mostly men who had invented these breast augmentations, but actually it was mostly women." She uncovered a 19th-century book called The Ugly-Girl Papers, "which basically advised just rubbing your breasts very harshly with an abrasive towel to pump them up".There were suction devices, and a wire device used to create a bird cage effect around the breasts.

  ¡ҽԣ˵ǿӸŮȴǹڼˡһߡŦԼʱǰרȨר   ɯ·Ƿ19Ҷ20Ҷݲҵʱ˵“Ů¡ص̫ ˡҸе𾪣ΪΪЩ¡ֶδ ģʵ ȴŮԡ”һ19͵飬Ůۡ“ⱾϽһëĦ鷿鷿”ʱ ѹߣԼһ  鷿ΧЧĽ װá


Virginia L Blum, English professor at the University of Kentucky, and author of Flesh Wounds, a study of cosmetic surgery, says breast implants have become normalised in the past few decades. "I was watching an actress on screen the other day, and it was clear she had breast implants, and I thought, well, actually, I see that all the time. It's unnatural-looking, but it has become natural to see it. It's part of our aesthetic landscape. I think it's now considered not extreme, but rather routine maintenance…saggy breasts are no longer considered an inevitable result of childbirth, but rather experienced as a deficit."

 ѧ  Ӣڡо崴ˡ ·L.¬ķ˵¡⼸ʮ ˡ“쿴ŵ ϵһ ŮԱȻ¡أ룬ޣʵ̫ˡǿܲȻ ȴúȻʵһ֡Ϊ¡ ٱ ɹֵǺ ά……´鷿 ıȻ ijȱݡ”


 Ninety per cent of all cosmetic surgery operations are performed on women, and Blum thinks this is because "women continue to experience their body as more mutable". I think women are raised around a fashionmagazine culture in which we realise we can work on different body partsһwe can divide and conquer. Plastic surgery approaches the body in much the same way that women are trained from girlhood to approach their bodies. Male bodies are not quite as available to that model, although I think they are becoming increasingly so".

90%ŮΪ¬ķΪ Ϊ“Ů 嵱Աȥ ĶΪŮ ʱ ־ĻģĻУʶԼԸ첻ͬ  λ—Էֶ֮Դ ķʽں̶ܴϺŮԴӶʱͱѵζûж ԵͲ̫ ģ ʽΪҲԽԽ ”


 Blum sees surgery as being related to consumption."You've consumed this body transformation, and you have a really great feeling, and you want to sustain that feeling. That's the thing with surgery: once you're in it, you're in it. You either have a bad result, and have to re-do the surgery because the result was insufficient, or the result was really great, and you want to reproduce that intoxicated feeling".

 ¬ķΪ йء“ת䣬Ȼܰάָо :һˣͰѲҪôˣҪôЧ ҪôЧرãٴ ĸо”


 The writer Jennifer Hayashi Danns, author of Stripped, also sees breast implants as an operation keenly related to materialism. Now 28, Danns worked in a lap-dancing club in her early 20s, where there was constant discussion of breast implantsһit sounds like a much heightened version of everyday British pop culture, with our ubiquitous breast implant advertisements, bared breasts in newspapers and on magazine covers, women with breast implants filling the casts of reality TV shows, as well as easily available pornography. Danns felt confident about her body when she started at the club, but after eight months she had implants to increase from a C cup to a DD. She regrets the operation now, but at the time there was a feeling of "instant gratification4z" she says. "It wasn't a question of profound, long-term happiness. It felt like getting a new car, or a new bag."

ѹ⡷һߡղݸ··˹ҲΪֲ¡һ  ص28ĵ˹20ͷʱһҹܻṤͣ¡—ӢճĻ档Ļ¡ع洦ɼֽ ־Ͽ  ¡صŮԳ Ŀ ɫ ƷͿŪ˹ տʼҹ ܻʱԼţ8 Ժ¡ أCֱDDں ˵ʱһ“̵”˵:“ ʲô̵Ŀ֡ ָо һ³һ°”


 The popularity of cosmetic breast implants also reflects just how utterly *in thrall we are, as a culture, too' gender distinctions. The breasts are the biggest physical sign we have of difference, and perhaps, *at base's, that's why they're so enormously popular. "It's an external symbol of a woman's gender, and we need and want that affirmation," says Biggs. He has been involved in more than 8,000 breast implant operations during the course of his career, and says he "began to realise the magnitude of the importance of the breast to a woman, and to how she feels about herself. So people can make jokes that the breast implants are done to attract men, or maybe to make other women envious. And there may be some minimal elements of truth there. But the real truth is that it helps her confirm to herself her own gender." Biggs and I *talk through" some of the complications"g he has seen during his careerһof the 11 women who were implanted at the same time as Lindsey, "all were successful, but they all had troubles, and problems'һand I ask whether the experimental nature of what he was doing, in inserting sacks of silicone into women, ever worried him "Oh no," he says. "I'm not a worrier.".

   ֲʽ ¡ҲӳǵǶô׵ԵԲҲӸ˵Ϊ¡ôܻӭȸ˹˵:“ŮԵڱ־Ҫ ȷϣҪȷϡ”ְҵв8000¡˵“ʼʶ鷿ŮҪԣŮҸоҪԡ ǿ Ц˵¡Ϊ ˣ Ů˼ʡҲ һʵijɷ֡ȻʵǣȷԼ Ա” ȸ˹ϸڴҽһЩ֢ͬʱ¡ص11λŮ“ȡóɹҲ”ʱȡ ֶ(Ůֲ˴װĹ)Եģ Ƿ˵:“ޣû.   ĵˡ”

    (ԷƷעThe Guardian Jan.1,2012)

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